1 in 4 people with cancer have a rare cancer

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According to the National Cancer Institute, a cancer is rare if it is diagnosed in fewer than 40,000 people a year.


Common cancers

  • Breast cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Kidney cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Melanoma
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Rectal cancer
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Uterine cancer

Rare cancers

  • 5q- syndrome
  • Abrikosov's tumor
  • Acinic cell carcinoma
  • Acral lentiginous melanoma
  • Acrospiroma
  • Acute biphenotypic leukemia
  • Acute erythroblastic leukemia
  • Acute erythroid leukemia
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia congenital sporadic aniridia
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, childhood
  • Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia
  • Acute monoblastic leukemia
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 1
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 2
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 3
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 4
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 5
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 6
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 7
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation
  • Acute myelocytic leukemia
  • Acute myeloid leukemia, adult
  • Acute myeloid leukemia, childhood
  • Acute myelomonocytic leukemia
  • Acute non lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia
  • Adenocarcinoid tumor
  • Adenocarcinoma of lung
  • Adenocarcinoma of the appendix
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma
  • Adenosarcoma of the uterus
  • Adrenal cancer
  • Adrenal medulla cancer
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma
  • Aggressive NK cell leukemia
  • Aicardi syndrome
  • Alveolar soft part sarcoma
  • Anal cancer
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma
  • Anaplastic ependymoma
  • Anaplastic ganglioglioma
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma
  • Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma
  • Anaplastic oligodendroglioma
  • Anaplastic plasmacytoma
  • Anaplastic small cell lymphoma
  • Angiofollicular lymph hyperplasia
  • Angiosarcoma of the breast
  • Angiosarcoma of the liver
  • Angiosarcoma of the scalp
  • APUDoma
  • Astroblastoma
  • Ataxia telangiectasia
  • Atrial myxoma, familial
  • Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
  • B cell prolymphocytic leukemia
  • B-cell lymphomas
  • Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome
  • Basal cell carcinoma, infundibulocystic
  • Basal cell carcinoma, multiple
  • Bazex-Dupre-Christol syndrome
  • Bednar's tumor
  • Benign metastasizing leiomyoma
  • Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma
  • Bile duct cancer
  • Biliary tract cancer
  • Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome
  • Bladder cancer, childhood
  • Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell
  • Blastoma
  • Bloom syndrome
  • Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome
  • Bone cancer
  • Bowen's disease
  • Brain stem cancer
  • Brain stem glioma, childhood
  • Brain tumor, adult
  • Brain tumor, childhood
  • Breast cancer, childhood
  • Breast cancer, male
  • Brenner tumor of ovary
  • Brenner tumor of the vagina
  • Bronchial
    adenomas/carcinoids childhood
  • Burkitt lymphoma
  • Buschke Lowenstein tumor
  • Capillary hemangioblastoma
  • Carcinoid syndrome
  • Carcinoid tumor
  • Carcinoid tumor childhood
  • Carcinoma of the vocal tract
  • Carcinoma of unknown primary site, childhood
  • Carney triad
  • Carotid body tumor
  • Cartilaginous cancer
  • CDK4 linked melanoma
  • Central nervous system lymphoma, primary
  • Central neurocytoma
  • Cerebellar astrocytoma, childhood
  • Cerebellar liponeurocytoma
  • Cerebral astrocytoma, childhood
  • Cerebral sarcoma
  • Cerebral ventricle cancer
  • Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle
  • Chordoma
  • Choriocarcinoma
  • Choroid plexus carcinoma
  • Choroid plexus papilloma
  • Chromophil renal cell carcinoma
  • Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia
  • Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
  • Chronic myeloproliferative disorders
  • Chronic neutrophilic leukemia
  • Classic Kaposi sarcoma
  • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma
  • Cockayne syndrome type I
  • Cockayne syndrome type II
  • Cockayne syndrome type III
  • Collecting duct carcinoma
  • Colorectal cancer, childhood
  • Costello syndrome
  • Cowden syndrome
  • Cronkhite-Canada disease
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes
  • Denys-Drash syndrome
  • Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans
  • Desmoid disease, hereditary
  • Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma
  • Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia
  • Diaphyseal medullary stenosis with malignant fibrous histiocytoma
  • Diffuse astrocytoma
  • Diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the rectum
  • Diffuse gastric cancer
  • Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor
  • Dyskeratosis congenita
  • Dyskeratosis congenita autosomal dominant
  • Eccrine mucinous carcinoma
  • Embryonal carcinoma
  • Embryonal sarcoma
  • Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes
  • Enchondroma
  • Endemic Kaposi sarcoma
  • Endometrial stromal sarcoma
  • Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma
  • Ependymoma
  • Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma
  • Esophageal cancer
  • Esophageal cancer, childhood
  • Essential thrombocythemia
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma
  • Ewing's family of tumors
  • Ewing's sarcoma


  • Extracranial germ cell tumor, childhood
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumor
  • Fallopian tube cancer
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis
  • Familial breast cancer
  • Familial colorectal cancer
  • Familial cylindromatosis
  • Familial platelet disorder with associated myeloid malignancy
  • Familial prostate cancer
  • Familial renal cell carcinoma
  • Familial Wilms tumor 2
  • Fanconi anemia
  • Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Fibrosarcoma
  • Follicular dendritic cell tumor
  • Follicular lymphoma
  • Frasier syndrome
  • Functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor
  • Gall bladder cancer
  • Gangliocytoma
  • Ganglioglioma
  • Gardner syndrome
  • Gastric lymphoma
  • Gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
  • Germinoma
  • Giant congenital nevus
  • Glassy cell carcinoma of the cervix
  • Glioblastoma
  • Glioma
  • Gliosarcoma
  • Glomus jugulare tumors
  • Glomus tympanicum tumor
  • Glomus vagale tumors
  • Glucagonoma
  • Glucagonoma syndrome
  • Goblet cell carcinoid
  • Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary
  • Gray zone lymphoma
  • Gynandroblastoma
  • Hairy cell leukemia
  • Heart tumor
  • Hemangioblastoma
  • Hemangioendothelioma
  • Hemangiopericytoma
  • Hemi 3 syndrome
  • Hepatoblastoma
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma, childhood
  • Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer
  • Hereditary multiple osteochondromas
  • Hidradenocarcinoma
  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Hodgkin lymphoma, childhood
  • Hurthle cell thyroid cancer
  • Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome
  • Hypopharyngeal cancer
  • Indolent B cell lymphoma
  • Infantile myofibromatosis
  • Inflammatory breast cancer
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor
  • Insulinoma
  • Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma
  • Intraneural perineurioma
  • Intraocular melanoma
  • Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia
  • Juvenile polyposis syndrome
  • Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma
  • Keratosis palmoplantaris adenocarcinoma of the colon
  • Kidney cancer
  • Kidney cancer, childhood
  • Klatskin tumor
  • Krukenberg carcinoma
  • Langerhans cell sarcoma
  • Large B cell diffuse lymphoma
  • Large granular lymphocyte leukemia
  • Laryngeal cancer
  • Laryngeal cancer, childhood
  • Ledderhose disease
  • Leiomyosarcoma
  • Lentigo maligna melanoma
  • Leukemia subleukemic
  • Leukemia, B-cell, chronic
  • Leukemia, Myeloid
  • Leukemia, T-cell, chronic
  • Lhermitte-Duclos disease
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome
  • Linear nevus sebaceous syndrome
  • Lip and oral cavity cancer
  • Liposarcoma
  • Liver cancer
  • Lymph node neoplasm
  • Lymphatic neoplasm
  • Lymphoblastic lymphoma
  • Lymphoma AIDSrelated
  • Lymphoma, gastric non Hodgkins type
  • Lymphoma, large-cell
  • Lymphoma, large-cell, immunoblastic
  • Lymphoma, small cleaved-cell, diffuse
  • Lymphoma, small cleaved-cell, follicular
  • Lymphosarcoma
  • Lynch syndrome
  • Macrocephaly-capillary malformation
  • Maffucci syndrome
  • Mahvash disease
  • Malignant cylindroma
  • Malignant eccrine spiradenoma
  • Malignant fibrous histiocytoma
  • Malignant germ cell tumor
  • Malignant melanoma, childhood
  • Malignant mesenchymal tumor
  • Malignant mesothelioma
  • Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor
  • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
  • Malignant Teratocarcinosarcoma
  • Mantle cell lymphoma
  • Mediastinal endodermal sinus tumors
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Medulloblastoma, childhood
  • Melanocytic lesions of CNS
  • Melanoma astrocytoma syndrome
  • Melanoma, familial
  • Meningioma
  • Merkel cell carcinoma
  • Metastatic insulinoma
  • Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma
  • Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
  • Muir-Torre syndrome
  • Multicentric Castleman’s Disease
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B
  • Multiple familial trichoepithelioma
  • Multiple familial trichoepithelioma 1
  • Multiple familial trichoepithelioma 2
  • Multiple fibrofolliculoma familial
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Multiple self healing squamous epithelioma
  • Mycosis fungoides
  • Myelocytic leukemia-like syndrome, familial, chronic
  • Myelofibrosis
  • Myeloid sarcoma
  • Myoepithelial carcinoma
  • Myxoid liposarcoma
  • Myxoma-spotty pigmentation-endocrine overactivity
  • N syndrome
  • Nasal cavity cancer, childhood
  • Nasopharyngeal cancer, childhood
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  • Nerve sheath neoplasm
  • Neural crest tumor
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Neurocutaneous melanosis
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix
  • Neuroepithelioma
  • Neurofibromatosis type 2
  • Neurofibromatosis type 3A
  • Neurofibrosarcoma
  • Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome
  • Nevus of Ito
  • Nijmegen breakage syndrome
  • Nodular melanoma
  • Non functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, childhood
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, during pregnancy
  • Non-small cell lung cancer, childhood
  • Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor
  • Noonan syndrome
  • Noonan syndrome 1
  • Ocular melanoma
  • Oligoastrocytoma
  • Oligodendroglioma
  • Ollier disease
  • Optic pathway glioma
  • Oral cancer
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma
  • Orbital lymphangioma
  • Orbital lymphoma
  • Oropharyngeal cancer, adult
  • Oropharyngeal cancer, childhood
  • Oslam syndrome
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Ovarian cancer, childhood
  • Ovarian carcinosarcoma
  • Ovarian epithelial cancer
  • Ovarian germ cell tumor
  • Ovarian low malignant potential tumor
  • Ovarian small cell carcinoma
  • Paget disease of the breast
  • Paget disease, extramammary
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer, childhood
  • Pancreatic carcinoma, familial
  • Pancreatic islet cell tumors
  • Pancreatoblastoma
  • Papillary cystadenocarcinoma
  • Papillary renal cell carcinoma
  • Paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma
  • Paranasal sinus cancer, adult
  • Paranasal sinus cancer, childhood
  • Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration
  • Parathyroid cancer, childhood
  • Parathyroid carcinoma
  • Pediatric T-cell leukemia
  • Penile cancer, adult
  • Penile cancer, childhood
  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma
  • Peutz Jeghers syndrome
  • Pheochromocytoma, childhood
  • Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloid leukemia
  • Phyllodes tumor of the prostate
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma
  • Pilomatrixoma
  • Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation
  • Pineoblastoma
  • Pineoblastoma, childhood
  • Pituitary cancer
  • Plasma cell leukemia
  • Platelet disorder, familial, with associated myeloid malignancy
  • Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma
  • Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
  • Pleuropulmonary blastoma
  • Plexosarcoma
  • POEMS syndrome
  • Polycythemia vera
  • Polyembryoma
  • Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma
  • Primary effusion lymphoma
  • Primary gastrointestinal melanoma
  • Primary malignant lymphoma
  • Primary malignant melanoma of the cervix
  • Primary malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva
  • Procarcinoma
  • Prolerating trichilemmal cyst
  • Proteus syndrome
  • Pseudomyxoma peritonei
  • Radiation induced angiosarcoma of the breast
  • Radiation induced cancer
  • Radiation induced meningioma
  • Rectal cancer, childhood
  • Rectal neoplasm
  • Rectosigmoid neoplasm
  • Renal cancer
  • Renal carcinoma, familial
  • Renal cell carcinoma 4
  • Renal hamartomas nephroblastomatosis and fetal gigantism
  • Renal pelvis and ureter, transitional cell cancer
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Retroperitoneal liposarcoma
  • Rhabdoid tumor
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma alveolar
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma embryonal
  • Richter syndrome
  • Rombo syndrome
  • Sacrococcygeal Teratoma
  • Salivary gland cancer, adult
  • Salivary gland cancer, childhood
  • Sarcoma botryoides
  • Schwannomatosis
  • Secretory breast carcinoma
  • Seminoma
  • Sertoli-leydig cell tumors
  • Severe congenital neutropenia autosomal recessive 3
  • Sezary syndrome
  • Shwachman-Diamond syndrome
  • Sideroblastic anemia pyridoxine-refractory autosomal recessive
  • Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome
  • Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma
  • Sinus cancer
  • Skin cancer, non melanoma, childhood
  • Small cell lung cancer, childhood
  • Small cell lung cancer, adult
  • Small intestine cancer
  • Small intestine cancer, childhood
  • Small non-cleaved cell lymphoma
  • Soft tissue sarcoma
  •  Soft tissue sarcoma childhood
  • Somatostatinoma
  • Sotos syndrome
  • Spinal cord neoplasm
  • Spleen neoplasm
  • * Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
  • Stomach cancer, childhood
  • Stomach cancer, familial
  • Stomach carcinoma
  • Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma
  • Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
  • Subependymoma
  • Superficial spreading melanoma
  • Supraglottic laryngeal cancer
  • Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor
  • Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, childhood
  • Synovial cancer
  • Synovial sarcoma
  • T-cell lymphoma 1A
  • Teratoma with malignant transformation
  • Testicular cancer
  • Testicular cancer, childhood
  • Thoracolaryngopelvic dysplasia
  • Thymic epithelial tumor
  • Thymoma, childhood
  • Thyroid cancer, anaplastic
  • Thyroid cancer, childhood
  • Thyroid cancer, follicular
  • Thyroid cancer, medullary
  • Tongue cancer
  • Transitional cell carcinoma
  • Trichofolliculoma
  • Trophoblastic tumor placental site
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Turcot syndrome
  • Tylosis with esophageal cancer
  • Tyrosinemia type 1
  • Urachal adenocarcinoma
  • Urachal cancer
  • Urethral cancer
  • Uterine sarcoma
  • Vaginal cancer
  • Verrucous nevus acanthokeratolytic
  • VIPoma
  • Visual pathway and hypothalamic glioma, childhood
  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease
  • Vulvar cancer
  • Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
  • Werner's syndrome
  • White sponge nevus of cannon
  • Wilms tumor and radial bilateral aplasia
  • Wilms' tumor
  • Wiskott Aldrich syndrome
  • WT limb blood syndrome
  • X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome 
  • X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome 1
  • Yolk sac tumor
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
  • Zuska's disease



* Source: The National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Health